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Violence against women can fit into several broad categories.
These include violence carried out by "individuals" as well as "states".
Other critics argue that employing the term gender in this particular way may introduce notions of inferiority and subordination for femininity and superiority for masculinity.
There is no widely accepted current definition that covers all the dimensions of gender based violence rather than the one for women that tends to reproduce the concept of binary oppositions: masculinity versus femininity.
Female genital mutilation is found mostly in Africa, and to a lesser extent in the Middle East and some other parts of Asia.
Marriage by abduction is found in Ethiopia, Central Asia and the Caucasus.
This is in part because many kinds of violence against women (specifically rape, sexual assault, and domestic violence) are under-reported, often due to societal norms, taboos, stigma, and the sensitive nature of the subject.CULTURALLY COMPETENT SERVICE PROVISION TO LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL AND TRANSGENDER SURVIVORS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE, Sabrina Gentlewarrior and Kim Fountain, National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women, Harrisburg, PA: September 2009.DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN LESBIAN, GAY, TRANSGENDER AND BISEXUAL COMMUNITIES: TRAINERS MANUAL, developed by New York State Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence, for New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute, HIV Education and Training Programs, updated June 2010. Breiding, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA: January 2013.The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993) states, "violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men." Several forms of violence are more prevalent in certain parts of the world, often in developing countries.For example, dowry violence and bride burning is associated with India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal.